The history of Picenes

» Montappone: toponym hypothesis, introduction to history
» The picene language
» The lord of horses
» The first Picenum-Rome war (269 b.C.)
» The second Picenum-Rome war (90-88 b.C.)
» Picenum Materials

Montappone: toponym hypothesis, introduction to history

Stele of Belmonte Piceno

Talking about local ancient history, you immediately think to the several roman remains that are in our territory, as for example those in Piane di Falerone, Urbisaglia or Fermo. Our local history is, however, more ancient than Romans, it began around the 9th century b.C. with the Picenes. According to the greek historian Strabo (that lived most part of his life in Rome), at the beginning of the Iron age the Picenes moved in our lands and the whole Marches from the Sabina Region, that nowadays is the province of Rieti. The confirmation of this fact comes from the finding in 1973 of the Penne S. Andrea epigraphs written in picene language, in which the Picenes define themselves SAFINUS SAFINAS TUTAS, that is Sabines of the Sabine community. During that migration, tells Strabo, they were led by a bird sacred to the god Mars: the woodpecker, that is PICUS, thus Picenes.

But who were the Picenes? They were a population of Indo-European origin as the Latins, but of Umbrian-Sabelli stock, that is coming from Umbria and Sabines. They lived in autonomous tribes, that joined together only in case of war with external aggressors (as for example the Senones and the Romans). They were mainly shepherds, farmers, and craftsmen, that during seven centuries of history gave life to the Picenes civilization. This civilization, of which an extensive documentation was found in the necropolis such as that of Belmonte Piceno, was in no way inferior for splendours to the other italic civilizations and will decay only in 268 b.C. with the beginning of the Roman colonization caused by the Picenes defeat to the battle of Ascoli. It just comes from Belmonte Piceno, the stele (memorial stone) dated sixth-fifth century b. C. in which there is written in Picenes language and letters, mostly erased by the passing of time, an inscription: APUNIS QUPAT [...] ESMEN [...] NIR [...], that is APONE HERE [...] LIES [...] THE WARRIOR [...]. Apunis is a Picenes person name, in particular of a warrior, that was likely a leader. The main hypothesis is that for Montappone happened what is usual in toponymy: a person name became a toponym, that is name of a place, territory, mountain, or hill. So, at the time of ancient Picenes, in the same territory where nowadays rises Montappone, there was probably a little settling of farmers and shepherds whose chief or patriarch was Apunis. For a little settlement there were water (the springs and the Ete torrent), woods and lands and pastures were not lacking. Tradition has then linked this name to the place. Hence MOUNT of APUNIS, keeping this name also during the Roman Period, became latinized MONS APONI and remained in the course of time MONTE (mount) of APONE , MONTE APONE : MONTAPPONE. Besides, the local dialect gives rightly back to Montappone the letter “U” of Apunis: MONTAPPU'.

Dr. Remo Persichini

The picene language

The picene language, also called south-picene or middle adriatic to distinguish it from that spoken in north Picenum (that differs a lot from the other because of the probable Illyrian and Greek influences), is an italic language coming from Indo-Europeans connected to the Latin and to the Osco-Umbrian languages. The picene alphabet is a mix of roman, etruscan and greek letters. We have only interpretative translations of the found inscriptions, and for some of them the meaning is unknown. The most evident feature of this language is the high frequency of the “u” vowel. This characteristic of the picene language has been inherited by the local dialect, in which the “u” vowel is in many words or at the end of an infinite numbers of terms.

Many of these inscriptions were found near Montappone: Loro Piceno, Falerone, Belmonte Piceno and Mogliano. Most interesting, for the local toponymy, is the stele (memorial stone) of Belmonte Piceno. Even if few words are readable, transliterating it is possible to read: APUNIS - QUPAT - ES (MEN) ..…, that is APONE LIES HERE .….

Apone is a picene person name, and I am convinced that happened what is usual in toponymy: a person name became a toponym, that is name of a place: APUNIS, MONS APUNIS, or latinized MONS APONI, MONTE (mount) of APONE , MONTAPPONE. Besides, the local dialect gives rightly back to Montappone the letter “U” of Apunis: MONTAPPU'. Picenes gods were Jupiter Serene, Mars and Pico Marzio, that is the god of war with the woodpecker, the sacred bird, then the goddes Cupra or Bona, goddes of beauty and fertility. Cupra comes from Kupiri, that in picene language means "good-looking"; Bona remained with the same meaning in the current local dialect.

Dr. Remo Persichini.

The lord of horses

The iconographic scheme of the lord of horses (the greek Despòtes tòn Ippòn) comes from that of the lord of wild beasts (Despòtes tòn Theròn) that has appeared first in Mesopotamia (the country in which born and developed the Sumerian, Assyro-Babylonian and Hittite civilizations) since the III millennium b.C..
From the middle to the late Geometric period (760-750 b.C.), it has been spread to Attica (Greece) and three other regions of Greece: to Argolis (750 b.C.) and then, around 720 b.C., to Evia and to the cyclades.
From Evia, thanks to the mediations of its colonies Pitecussa and Cumae, it spread in Italy. The region that first implemented this iconographic type, from the third to the fourth quarter of the VIII century b.C., is therefore Campania. From the end of the VIII century to the beginning of the VII century b.C. it spread in the Etruscan, Faliscan-capenate and Emilian areas perhaps thanks to the mediation of Campania.
Then, from the end of VII century to the beginning of VI century b.C., it reached Sabine area and Picenum (see the well-known examples in Belmonte Piceno, Treia, Tolentino, Sirolo and Pitino) and Abruzzo.
The communication routes, such as the ones that run along the Nera, Serra and Velino rivers valleys, or the one that go through the Colfiorito pass and the so-called "tirrenica meridionale"1 (Southern Tyrrhenian), were essential for the spreading in this area.
The lord of horses can be pictured in two ways:
between two facing horses (see tables 1-4).
standing on the crupper of two horses set out in pair or facing back (see tables 5,6 ).
Frequently the equines pictures are not natural, on the contrary they are drawn in a stylized or extremely bizarre way.
This iconographic scheme that represents a human figure with two horses can be interpreted in two ways:
the first interpretation consider the human figure the representation of a god (Pòseidon Ippios)2.
the second interpretation consider the human figure the representation of a tamer - horse-breaker or warrior. He wants first to show clearly his belonging to the upper-class, the only that could stand the maintenance of horses and the purchase of a panoply (complete suit of armour). In this case, the goal is not only to praise the wealth, power, strength and war virtues of the aristoi (the best) but also to remind the Homeric warrior-heroes that were often defined hippòdamoi (horse-breakers)3.
The second hypothesis is to be preferred, considering that all the objects with this iconographic scheme were found in graves of upper-class members together with other elements representing their status symbol: weapons, remains of carts, vases and tools for the banquet, objects in bronze, gold and silver.
When the human figure is standing on the crupper of two horses, the purpose is to highlight not only the wealth, the strength and the warrior abilities but also the deftness and cleverness in riding. Anyway, also in this case they clearly refer to the Homeric warrior-heroes that often tested their deftness4.
So, the finding of objects with this iconographic scheme in male graves, highlights and praises the wealth, power and war skills that the dead used to have during his life. As a matter of facts, the main wish of these rich members of aristocracy was, not by chance, to consider themselves natural inheritors of the ancient heroes made immortal by the lines of the Iliad and Odyssey by Homer. When these artefacts are in female graves, it means that they were of the highest rank, wives of very important figures or descendant of a well-known family, or, anyway, that unlike most of their contemporaries, they have had an important role in the society and wanted it to be remembered. Finally, it is not surprising that these objects date back to the VIII-VI centuries b.C. These were exactly the centuries in which the Italian aristocratic rank born and had its acme and they wanted to hand down to posterity their leadership by means of precious objects as well as some way of self portraying.

Dr. Ilaria Persichini - archaeologist

Tav. 1
Bronze handle found in the tomb of the Chief in Belmonte Piceno, first half of the VI century b.C.
Tav. 2
Bronze handle found in Treia, first half of the VI century b.C.
Tav. 3_a
Pair of bronze handles found in the tomb of Porta del Ponte (Bridge Door) in Tolentino, second half of the VI century b.C.
Tav. 3_b
Detail of the handles
Tav. 4
Bronze handle found in Sirolo, second half of the VI century b.C.
Tav. 5
Lid holder found in the grave no. 7 (female) in the Pitino Monte Penna (S. Severino) necropolis, end of VII century b.C.
Tav. 6_a
Bronze cuirass disk with the lord of horses found in the grave no. 17 (male) in the Pitino Monte Penna (S. Severino) necropolis, end of VII century b.C.
Tav. 6_b
Detail of the disk

The first Picenum-Rome war (269 b.C.)

In the VI-V century b. C. where nowadays is Picenum and most part of the Marches there were a civilization at the climax of its splendour called Picene, from the name of the Italic people of which it was expression.
Politically the Picenes were a confederacy of independent tribes with elective chiefs, that used to join each other under a collective military command only in case of high danger or war. Thanks to this strategy they succeed in withstanding the expansionism of Senones, that were pressing from north and from Romagna, reached Sena Gallica (present-day Senigallia).

It was just to fight the danger coming from Senones that the Picenes accepted in 299 b.C. to join forces with the Romans. The Gauls represented a great danger also for Romans, both because in 390 b.C. they raided Rome and set fire to Capitoline hill and because in that period (299 b.C.) they were fighting the third Samnite war and the Senones were allied to Samnites and Etruscan.
In 296 b.C. the Romans and the Picenes will beat together in the battle of Sentino (close to Sassoferrato) the confederate armies of Samnites, Etruscan and Senones. Now the Senones aren’t a danger for the Picenes anymore, but a new danger is taking shape. In 290 b.C., at the end of the third Samnite war, the Picenes were the only italic people not subject to Romans, in fact they were completely independent and allied to Rome. The picene territory was to large and rich to avoid the lust for expansion of Rome and let Rome observe the agreements ruled by the alliance. As always happens in this case, the expansionistic power begins with provocations. Romans start founding colonies in the picene territory. They found a colony in the picene Adria (Atri) on the pretext that this town has been disloyal during the third Samnite war and another colony in Sena Gallica (present-day Senigallia).
Obviously these colonies represent for Picenes unwelcome intrusions in their territory. But much more unpleasant was the order of the Roman Senate to the consul Publius Valerius not to bring back to Rome the army that was defeated on the Siri river (close to Taranto) during the war against Taranto and Phyrrus, king of Epirus (present-day Albany), and let them winter in Fermo instead. It was officially a punishment arranged by the Senate to the defeated army, but it was actually a military occupation of the picene city of Fermo.
And Picenum, feeling itself threatened, in 269 b.C. denounced the trampled treaty and declared war on Rome. Rome, that was waiting for this war declaration, sent two armies to Picenum. Each army was commanded by a Consul, and each Consul marched with at least two legions. And considering that each legion was made of 5000 infantrymen and 300 cavalrymen, at least 20000 soldiers were sent to fight Picenum. That means that Picenes should have a high military power, that worried Rome, since they know each other very well, being allied during the third Samnite war. So Rome sent on the Via Flaminia toward Camerino an army commanded by the Consul Appio Claudio and another army commanded by the Consul Sempronio Sofo on the Via Salaria toward Ascoli. The tactical formation was aimed at cutting the Picenum area in two parts, that confirms the worries of roman armies to fight against the united picene forces. The Consul Appio Claudio besieged Camerino with deception, they pillaged it and sold the citizens as slaves. The Consul Sempronio Sofo avoided Ascoli, considered invincible, and tried to contact the picene forces to give battle.

A first battle, that had a negative result for Picenes, was fighted in a place called Interamnia Polentina Piceni, near mount of Ascenzione and Comunanza. A second battle was fighted in Urticinum (Ortezzano), and following the defeat of Picenes, Urticinum was distroyed. The third and last battle was fighted close to Truentum (present-day Martinsicuro). When the battle was about to begin, it happened a strong earthquake that threw into panic both armies. But the Consul Sempronio Sofo shouted to his soldiers that the earthquake was a good omen, because it was a greeting of the goddess Tellure to the Roman victory. A brutal fight flared up, with Romans that were blindly certain of victory and Picenes that knew they were fighting the last and decisive battle. The fight was extremely bloody with few survivors in both parties and Picenes, at that point military weakened, were forced to ask for peace.

The Consul Sempronio Sofo went in Ascoli and started the pacification of Picenum. First of all he took a census of Picenes, that was a people of around one million inhabitants, considering that the census resulted 360.000 men, and women and children were not counted. He ordered then the deportation of Urticinum inhabitants to Marsica close to Fucino lake (not dried up yet) in the area of present day Ortucchio (whose name reminds Urticinum). Deportation was considered a merciful act, also taking into consideration that the inhabitants of Camerino were sold as slaves. The Consul ordered another deportation of the inhabitants of massa dei Piceni, to the Salerno’s area, were they founded a town called Picentia and the countryside called Picentino. Once the pacification was completed, in 268 b.C. the roman colony Ariminum (Rimini) was founded, that was in a strategic position to keep watch on Senones and Picenes, in order to prevent that old enemies joined their forces for a new rebellion. The Consul Sempronio Sofo was given a Solemn triumph, usually dedicated only to big winners. Such was the joy of the Senate to have the whole Italy under its rule. The Senate thought that the inhabitants of Camerino were treated too harshly, because they used to sell as slaves only peoples that resisted indefinitely while Camerino was captured very soon and with deception. they ordered therefore, so tells the roman writer of the I century b.C. Valerio Massimo in his “Nine books of memorable Deeds and Sayings”, to find them, buy them back and set them free. Furthermore they gave back to the inhabitants of Camerino the seized goods, and the poorest citizens were given a house in Rome on the Aventine Hill. Picenes became Roman citizens without suffrage, they were obliged to give their military services to the roman legions, to pay taxes but they could not vote. this is the conclusion of the Picenum-Rome war of 269 b.C.

Dr. Remo Persichini

The second Picenum-Rome war (90-88 b.C.)
The Pagus and the battle of Monte Vidon Corrado in the second Picenum-Rome war

In the following 180 years, Rome follows up with the Italic peolple a non-oppressing but cooperating and integrating policy, except for the excesses and arrogance of some officials; this happened because Rome wanted to have the Italics allied in the several wars caused by its expansionistic aim, however the historiographers almost snubbed their contribution and consider them little more than slaves. The Italics, by their side, around 90 b.C., were complaining about the fact that they were not Roman citizen yet, that is without suffrage and all the consequent rights and warranties. Anyway, Romans and Italics were similar peoples, practically brothers, considering that they shared the Indo-European origins and so the language, the culture and the institutions were similar.

Rome made a serious mistake that caused the rebellion of the Italics peoples.

The first revolt focus erupted in the autumn of 91 b.C. in Ascoli. The Proconsul Caio Servilio and his legate Fronteio came to Ascoli while the people was celebrating an important religious feast. For some reasons the Proconsul ordered to cancel the feast, and that was the ignition spark of the rebellion that they have been organizing with the near peoples. Caio Servilio and Fronteio and all the Romans that were in the city have been slain. Several peoples joined their forces with Picenes, thus creating the Italic League with Senate and Capital in Corfinio (AQ) – First attempt to create an independent Italic state, 1800 years before the independence wars - the Vestini, the Marsi, the Marrucini, the Frentani, the Hirpini, the Peligni, the Samnites, the Apulian, the Bruzii, the Lucans and the Campani. The Umbrian and the Etruscan plaid for time. The Italic League tells Rome that they would have declared war if they hadn’t granted the inalienable rights. Rome replies that at first they have to lay down arms and then they can arrange terms. Now the Italics declares war on Rome, thus starting the well-known Social War.

In the spring of 90 b.C., the Senate sends to Picenum an army commanded by Pompey Strabo, a roman general of Fermo origins, to help the colony of Fermo that was besieged by Picenes but still loyal to Rome. Pompey Strabo was the father of Pompey the Great, the big opponent of Julius Caesar.
This time the Roman Senate sends just one army and not two as it was in 269 b.C. Obviously, the Picenes, as other Italic peoples, after 180-year-submission, do not have an organized military apparatus, and the only military experience that the insurgents have is that acquired in the Roman Legions.
Nevertheless Pompey Strabo was very careful not to pass by Via Salaria, where he could be attacked by both Picenes and Samnites, but he marched along Via Flaminia and Forum Flaminii (present-day Foligno) through Plestia (present-day Colfiorito) and Prolaqueum (present-day Pioraco) and Camerinum, towards Fermo through Septempeda (present-day San Severino Marche), Tolentinum and Urbs Salvia (present-day Urbisaglia).
From Urbisaglia the street passed by Loro Piceno, Massa Fermana, Montappone and Monte Vidon Corrado. From Monte Vidon Corrado a branch went on by Vettonia (present-day Montegiorgio), while another branch reached Falerio Picenus (present-day Piane di Falerone) and after Montegiorgio it joined again the main street that, through the Tenna river, reached Grottazzolina and Fermo.

Appian, a greek language roman historian of the II century a.D., in his first book of the “Civil Wars” tells that three picene generals Vidacilio, Tito Lafrenio and Publio Ventidio, gathered their troops by mount Falerino (or Falerno), and waited for the roman army to block them the road. Then they attacked the roman army, put it to rout and to flight and followed it up to Fermo. Pompey Strabo managed with difficulty to shelter himself and the few survivors inside the walls of the loyal and native colony of Fermo.

The historiographers agree in stating that mount Falerino was located near Falerio Picenus (present-day Piane di Falerone); in addition to this, for strategic reasons and for the fact that Appian called it “Mount”, it should be a pre-eminent hill in this area. The highest hills in the area of Piane di Falerone are the hill of Falerone (m 433 AMSL), the hill of Monte Vidon Corrado (m 429 AMSL) and the San Liberato mountain (m 424 AMSL).
The hill of Falerone is too far from the street on which marched the roman army.
The hill of Monte Vidon Corrado and mount of San Liberato are perfectly placed, both on the geographic and on strategic point of view, as regards the probable progress of the march.
The path of the street on which the roman army marched has been proved with documents up to San Severino Marche. From Tolentino the route was hypothetic but probable and indirectly proved.
Tolentino was a town of the picene tribes confederation and was site of an important picene necropolis. Urbisaglia was an important picene centre that became later an important roman centre. Loro Piceno was already a prosperous town in VI-V century b.C., the dating period of the famous memorial stone with the epigraph inscription in picene language.
It’s clear that so important sites should be reached by the street that came to Fermo. Besides the fact that the picene army was waiting for the roman army by the mount Falerino, shows that the street to block passed by this mount, so Monte Vidon Corrado or, in the area where today rises Monte Vidon Corrado.

As proof of that, has been found recently in Monte Vidon Corrado interesting finds. In 1990, close to the centre, just at the beginning of Rota quarter, were found the remains of a preroman settling, rural residence – farm, that the Superintendence for the archaeological heritage of Marches, studing the base of a column, dates back to the IV-III century b.C. Besides in 1991, while ploughing a land in S. Pietro quarter, a few hundreds meters far from the preroman settling, they have found a piece of a brick floor of roman manufacture.
Considering these finds, we can assert that in the period of the battle of 90 b.C., where nowadays rises Monte Vidon Corrado, there was a little urban settlement (pagus).

Now let’s tell about the battle. The tactic-strategic plan of the battle is easy to guess: block the street and attack the roman army from a favourable position, that has to accept the pitched battle drawing up in the wide valley of the Monte Vidone quarters of San Pietro, San Giuseppe, Valle Marina and Corneto, with the Tenna river and its marshes behind and the Picenes on the hills.
The strategic situation reminds the battle of the Trasimeno lake in 217 b.C. between Hannibal and the Carthaginians on the hills and the Romans on the plain with the lake behind. The result was a terrible roman defeat.

Therefore, 2100 years ago, a spring morning in 90 b.C., the picene army begins the “battle of Monte Vidon Corrado”.
The course of the battle is easy to guess. The roman army is made up of 5000 infantrymen and 300 cavalrymen. The picene army was strongly motivated, because it was fighting for the freedon of its country. Besides it was surely bigger, as a matter of facts the three picene generals, knowing that they were military inferior than the Romans have surely gathered the highest number of men in a favourable place.
The wide slopes of the battle field were witness of the fight of 10.000 armed men.
So happens the fight of the infantries with steel weapons while on the wings fights the cavalry.
The roman army vacillates, surrenders, is put to rout. Pompey Strabo tries not to be destroyed and starts the flight towards Fermo with the Tenna river and its marshes that slow up the flight and more bloody the defeat.
He succeed accidentally in sheltering inside the Fermo’s walls and arrange the defence of the town with the survivors.

It’s a glory day for the picene armies.

The picene general Tito Lafrenio besieges the rest of the roman army barricaded inside Fermo. But another roman army turns up commanded by Servio Sulpicio, to which Pompey Strabo orders to attack the picene forces as soon as he makes a sortie outside the city. The manoeuvre succeeds. While Strabo is making a sortie against the Lafrenio soldiers, Servio Sulpicio attacks and sets fire to the picene camp.
It is the rout for Picenes. The general dies in battle. The survived picene troops reached Ascoli.
Pompey Strabo marches towards Ascoli. In the meanwhile Aulo Plozio, lieutenant of Pompey Strabo, is sent to Umbria to oppose the insurrection action that the picene general Publio Ventidio is carrying out and during his way he destroys the town of Cingoli.
At the beginning of the besiege the inhabitants of Ascoli devised a stratagem: they show on the walls only old men and children to let Pompey Strabo think that after the defeat the picene soldiers did not reach Ascoli. Persuaded by what he sees, Strabo attacks the city to overcome it, and while his soldiers are on the stairs, the doors open and the picene soldiers drive the attackers back with heavy losses. Strabo, after this episode, becomes more careful; thus begins a long besiege of the Ascoli city with 75.000 roman soldiers camped around the walls.
Also Pompey Strabo knows that the conquest of Ascoli will not be easy, both because of the proud resistance of its inhabitants and because near the city and on the mountains the troops of Vidacilio are camped, another picene general that won the battle of Monte Vidon Corrado, that, coming from Ascoli, supports the continuous sorties of the besieged.
Comes from that period the famous picene “acorn missile”, big acorns made of lead to be shooted with slings, several acorns were found around the walls of Ascoli.

The year after, 89 b.C., Pompey Strabo, in the meanwhile elected Consul, tries a talk with the general of the Italic League Vettio Scatone, that arrived with his troops to support Vidacilio and the city of Ascoli.

Pompey Strabo had in Rome a brother, Sextus Pompey, that was an old friend of Vettio Scatone. Strabo makes them meet for a talk, that was told partly by Cicero. Cicero tells about the chivalrous meeting between the two enemies, but he didn’t tells us anything about the topics discussed. Probably Sextus Pompey told that was useless to go on fighting, because the Giulia law that was already promulgated and the law Plautia Papiria, that was about to be promulgated by the Roman Senate would have given the citizenship to the loyal Italics or those who would have applied for it within 60 days. These law would therefore get away the Etruscan and the Umbrian from the Italic League, that were not so much involved in the battle and in a short time would have interrupted the fighting will of the League.
The Senate of the Italic League, whose name was talking Scatone, did not agreed to lay down arms, on the contrary, having learnt that Mithridates, king of Pontus (a region of Anatolia, present-day Turckey), was preparing a war against Rome, he sent a message to know if he wanted to join his forces with the League. The positive answer came too late.
In the same year, probably close to Lisciano (near Ascoli) on a hill that was called in the past of Pompey, there was a battle between Romans and the confederates Picenes-Samnites. The defeat of the confederates was very heavy: 18.000 dead and 4.000 prisoners. Scatone was taken prisoner and made himself killed, as tells Seneca, by a loyal servant that then kills himself too.

The winter in 89 b.C. was coming and for the survivors that took refuge on the mountains (Sibillini mountains, and mounts Galluccio and Laga) the situation appeared to be problematic for the cold weather, the snow and the roman troops that were pressing. However, Vidacilio, could gather a new army with the Picenes, Marruccini and Peligni forces.
But a new danger is coming into sight caused by Picenes and Confederates. Inside the besieged Ascoli, a new party for peace is taking shape. Many citizens did not know why they should still suffer this long besiege and the bloody battles, if they could ask for peace and have the Roman citizenship. At that point, however, the picene commander, after all the damages borne, wanted to fight to the bitter end. Vidacilio tried actually to attack Romans and enter the city, because he knew that the new party was trying to talk to Romans. But Strabo had surrounded the city with entrenched camps with high fences that was impossible to get over.
He tried again telling the picene commander that were inside the walls to make a sortie as soon as he would begin the attack. But at that point the city has left him, and when he began the attack there was no sorties. According to Vidacilio, it is treason, and as soon as he succeed in entering the city walls he made all the sustainers of the peace party be killed. Then, tells Appian, having lost any hope to save the city, he ordered a stake to be built, banqueted with the friend, took the poison in the libations and lying down on the stake, ordered his friends to set fire. The last big picene general was so finished off, because he considered honourable, tells Appian, not to survive his dying country.

Ascoli was numbed and surrendered without conditions. It’s November 17th 89 b.C.

Strabo get into the city and made the Decurions (the highest magistrates) be flogged and killed, spared the people the deportation and slavery, but sacked, set fire and razed the city.

This is the end of the second and last war of Picenes against Rome.

But vidacilio, was right. Soon after the king Mithridates declared war to Rome, and the citizenship grated by Romans to the Italics with the policy of “divide et impera” was a fraud. Italics were grouped in ten new tribes, besides the 35 roman tribes already existing. The law provides that in a suffrage as soon as the majority is reached with the vote of the first 35 tribes, it is no more necessary to call the remaining tribes to vote. In this way the Italics were never called.
It was not a big damage, because also Romans, within 50 years with Julius Ceaser, would lost the democracy of the Republic.

Dr. Remo Persichini

Picenum Materials

Campovalano – picene crockery
Campovalano - picene crockery
S.Severino – head of war club
Campovalano – corolla goblet
San Severino – wheel of a war chariot
San Severino – picene helmet
Campovalano – tip of a spear
Campovalano - wheel of a war chariot
Campovalano – picene swords and tip of spears
San Severino – picene helmets and crockery
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